NASA planned to send to Europe, the smallest Galilean satellite of Jupiter, the mission of Europa Clipper. This scientific program promises to become one of the most ambitious and expensive for the US space agency. It is Europa Clipper should find out if there is life in the under-ice of Europe. If NASA directly or indirectly discovers biological organisms in the satellite of Jupiter, mankind will face a serious challenge.
The existence of liquid subglacial oceans scientists suspects in many celestial bodies of the solar system, in particular – on satellites of Jupiter Europe, Callisto, and Ganymede, on the moons of Saturn – Enceladus and Titan, as well as on other satellites – for example, Mimase. All of these moons are covered with a layer of ice (water or hydrocarbon), under which there can be oceans. The conditions in such water bodies may be similar to the Antarctic Lake Vostok, but unlike the terrestrial reservoir, the liquid on satellites can exist mainly due to warming tides.
In 1997, Europe explored the American station Galileo, which made 11 spans near the Jovian moon. The mission showed that under the icy crust of the satellite, there may be a global subglacial ocean or several lakes. In the first case of salt water in the bowels of the moon can be twice as much as in the World Ocean on Earth. Moreover, taking into account the tidal energy due to the gravitational interaction of Jupiter and Europe showed that the local sections of the subsurface ocean of the latter can be heated to comfortable temperatures even for terrestrial organisms. However, scientists do not exclude that instead of liquid water in the depths of Europe is viscous ice.